(P.S. This post may contain affiliate links 'cause momma needs to bring home the bacon.)I've been doing a lot of research on language and Theory-of-Mind these last few weeks and after looking into all this research, the consensus is in.....
Language is the key to developing Theory-of-Mind.Language isn't only the key to Theory-of-Mind, but it is "the only ability that has clearly been shown to be directly related to Theory-of-Mind competence" (pg. 28). That's a pretty strong statement. So if you want your child to have Theory-of-Mind, then you must develop their language skills. But let's back up for a sec, why is Theory-of-Mind (ToM) even something you should be concerned about?
Why Theory on Mind is ImportantToM matters because it's social cognition. When your child has ToM, they're able to recognize that other people have unique perspectives and beliefs and that these things affect others people's actions. ToM is also a big factor in peer acceptance and having positive social interactions with friends. If you have ToM, then you know that not everyone thinks like you do and knows all of the information that you know. And you not only know this, but you also know about others' beliefs and perspectives. So how does language help a child develop the skills needed to recognize and understand others' perspectives, beliefs, and actions? Language helps your child do these things because it's what your child needs to put together how "emotions, thoughts, and actions are linked over time" (pg. 67).
Language = Understanding of emotions, thoughts & actionsYour child needs language skills to develop of use Theory of Mind, yes, but there are a few specifics that can real help your kiddo! Here are the specific language skills that support Theory of Mind:
- Vocabulary (cognition, perception, emotion)
- Basic Concepts (real vs. pretend)
- Story Telling & Recall
- Syntax (conjunctions)
let's dig in to all these language skills!
VocabularyThere are three types of vocabulary words you need to teach your child for ToM development. These words help your child to learn about how others perceive, interact with, and feel about the world. Here are the three categories of vocabulary and why each one is important.
- Your child needs to have words to describe 'mental states' or the things going on inside someone's head.
- Examples: think, know, remember, guess, perceive, intend, believe, suspect, assume & imagine
- These are the words that describe how someone interacts with the physical world.
- Examples: see, hear, touch, feel
- These words are pretty self-explanatory.
- Examples: happy, sad, angry, excited, frustrated
Basic ConceptsYour child needs to be able to tell if something is real or pretend. This concept of imaginary vs. real is something you see a child catch on to when they started using more advanced play skills like pretend play. Seeing a child pretend to play "school" is not only super adorable, but also an indicator that your child is beginning to distinguish between what is real and pretend in the here and now.
(Want to encourage pretend play? Try using toys like this doctor kit)
Story TellingYour child needs to how to tell a story so that they learn how to think of events logically and connect cause and effects. Story telling is really important because your child needs to be able to explain how "emotions, thoughts, and actions are linked over time" (pg. 67) to develop ToM.
(here's a post about narrative skills of kiddos who are DHH and how you can help your child improve their story telling)
SyntaxWhen your child is explaining cause and effect and how things are connected, there are some specific sentence types they need to know. (btw, this portion on syntax is from my musings on the topic and not directly from the ebook this post was developed from.) The conjunctions "but" and "so" are key elements your child needs to know how to use in sentences to talk about ToM. "But" is important because your child uses it to identify and describe differences.... which is what ToM is all about. With ToM, your child is recognizing, identifying, and understanding the differences in how others' think.
"But" = explaining differences"So" is the next conjunction that you need to focus on teaching your child. "So" can be used to describe cause and effect which is super important for ToM because your child needs to connect others' thoughts, perspectives, and emotions with their actions.
"So" = explaining a result
Now how does your child develop all these language skills?Developing close relationships with people like parents, grandparents, and siblings are really important because it's within the interactions of these relationships that your child is first exposed to others' thoughts, beliefs, and actions. When you think about it, it feels so intuitive. When mom accidentally breaks a glass and is sad, the toddler sees this. In this scenario, your child would have an opportunity to learn that you have a different reaction than them to the same event. how you read books together, encouraging your child's pretend play skills and providing opportunities for your child to learn to use conjunctions.
Let's tie language, Theory-of-Mind and social skills all togetherYour child needs to develop language skills to develop ToM. ToM is incredibly important because it's the foundation your child needs to develop social skills. Social skills have a big impact on your child's success in the classroom and on the playground. Language, ToM and social skills are all connected and interdependent. Help your child build these critical skills so that your child can develop the social skills needed to be successful on the playground and become socially competent individuals.
Curious to know how ToM affects your child's interactions with peers? Check out this post.
Want a free cheatsheet all about language & Theory-of-Mind?